I’m so glad you reached out to Your Office Mom for help with this appalling situation at work. I can't understand how co-workers can harass and get away with it on the job. No doubt, you are working in a toxic environment with these bullying behaviors from a gang of middle aged mean girls.
Your boss knows and did or didn't take action. HR is well aware but hasn't done anything. You took the high road, and approached the Beehive but got lackluster results. And, you're looking at external and internal job opportunities to distance yourself. You are doing all the right things; unfortunately, management won't step up and address the problems of a toxic environment. Sadly, despite getting out of the department, or company, your options are limited. Here is my advice:
If you think it will eliminate some of the on-going day-to-day issues, take your boss up on moving to a different cubicle. Try to get as far away as possible. Hopefully, you will be around new co-workers. Regardless, the Beehive will have their stingers out so if you feel that will aggravate the issue, talk with your boss about a "reason" for the move. However, with this group, it may not matter one way or the other, but be prepared for the blow back.
Be sure you keep your computer password-protected, with a setting to go to sleep in a short time — ditto on your cell phone (whether it's a personal or work device). If there's any chance, anyone knows your passwords, change them ASAP. If you are using a shared drive where someone can tamper with your documents, keep a backup copy on your desktop or a flash drive. If you have lockable desk space keep your handbag, snacks, and beverages locked up.
Focus on your job search so you can change the situation. Update your resume, check your online profiles and create a job search strategy. Apply for internal job postings. Before you take an internal position, make sure you’re not leaping from one toxic department to another.
I'm an extrovert, so I don't understand how an introvert might feel in this situation with a beehive of old-enough-to-know-better party animals. But, as an extrovert, if this were happening to me, I would feel trapped in this toxic situation too.
You deserve so much better than this. I hope this work advice is helpful. Please keep me posted.